Birds-of-Paradise: Beauty Kings

Birds-of-Paradise: Beauty Kings

Birds-of-paradise go to great lengths to attract mates, but how did their impressive plumage and unique courtship dances evolve? The answer lies in sexual selection and female choice.


3 - 12


Biology, Genetics


Bird-of-Paradise Perching

Birds-of-paradise show high levels of sexual dimorphism, meaning there are large differences between the males and females of a given species. The males are showier with more colorful feathers, which they use to attract females.

Photograph by Tim Laman
Birds-of-paradise show high levels of sexual dimorphism, meaning there are large differences between the males and females of a given species. The males are showier with more colorful feathers, which they use to attract females.
Leveled by
Selected text level

High above the rainforests of Papua New Guinea, an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, male red birds-of-paradise gather to display. They look glorious in the morning sun: primary-colored and sleek, with fine black tail feathers that coil behind them in ribbons. It's easy to see why early explorers mistook these birds for mythical creatures. They let out a repetitive, piercing screech to advertise their presence. A cacophony of disorganized sound erupts from the treetops as each bird's call competes with the next. When a female finally appears, the males begin bobbing and strutting and fanning their delicate wing feathers, each trying to secure the females attention for himself.

With their dramatic appearance and unusual courtship behavior, it's no wonder birds-of-paradise have captured people's curiosity for so long. They were first introduced to the Western world in the early 16th century, when Magellan's crew brought specimens back to Europe from the East Indies. Since then they have been the inspiration for paintings, poetry, and women's fashion.

Birds-of-paradise can be found throughout Papua New Guinea, the surrounding islands of Indonesia, and a small part of northeastern Australia. There are 39 species altogether, each one different from the next. They come in a dizzying array of colors, shapes and sizes, from the plain-looking paradise-crow to the flamboyant plumage of the Raggiana bird-of-paradise. The birds are certainly magnificent to look at, but they are perhaps best known for their showy courtship displays.

Twerking Is a Tactic

With a flick of his blacker-than-black cape feathers, the male Superb bird-of-paradise shape-shifts into a barely recognizable form, dubbed the "psychedelic smiley face." A frantic, twitching blur of feathers, he hops this way and that, making sure the female is always getting his best angle. He whirs and clicks and snaps his tail rhythmically, flashing a breastplate of shimmery feathers in a game of now-you-see-me, now-you-don't. The female looks on impassively.

His dance moves may appear erratic, but they are carefully choreographed to convince females that he is the best mate. The male bird-of-paradise works hard to impress, tirelessly refining his moves until the female is suitably enthralled. It is the males that are known for their extravagant plumage and twerking. The females are quite ordinary by comparison, but they are also the ones in charge, making the decisions.

Impressive as it is, the male's beauty is impractical. For example, take the ribbon-tailed Astrapia, which boasts bright white tail feathers that stretch one meter (three feet) long. Excessively long tail feathers might help this bird-of-paradise attract mates, they aren't exactly useful for survival.

Theory of Sexual Selection

So how did features like this evolve? According to Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, traits evolve and become more common in a population if they improve an individual's ability to survive. The Astrapia's bright, long tail feathers don't seem to confer any kind of survival advantage. In fact, they may hinder survival by complicating the Astrapia's ability to hide from predators.

It's one thing to have a trait that improves your likelihood of survival. Still, if you can't find a mate, you can't pass the trait on to the next generation. To account for this, Darwin developed a theory of sexual selection. It suggests that traits can also evolve in a population if they improve an individual's ability to attract more or better mates, even if those same traits may harm long-term survival. If natural selection explains evolution driven by the competition for survival, then sexual selection explains evolution driven by the competition for mates.

Female Birds Can Be Picky

The dense jungles of Papua New Guinea provide a bounty of nutritious food for the birds-of-paradise. What's more, it's an island with very few natural predators. These are the perfect conditions for a specific type of sexual selection, known as "female choice," to arise. Females don't need the males to defend them, provide food, or help raise young, so they can be picky when it comes to choosing a mate. As a result, males have to work hard to impress if they want a chance to mate and pass on their genes.

Every now and again, due to new combinations and mutations of genes when birds mate, new traits emerge in a population that females find more attractive. For example, one year in a population of crow-like birds, a male may be born with longer-than-average feathers. For whatever reason, a female finds long feathers more attractive than short feathers and the two birds mate. Their young inherit both their father's long feathers and their mother's preference for them. Over successive generations, these traits become more and more common in the population. In other words, the preferences of the females are literally shaping the appearance of the males over time.

The male birds-of-paradise are certainly a sight to behold. Still, there is more to their performance than first meets the eye. When you look at a bird-of-paradise, you are witnessing evolution in action. And, while the male grabs our attention, strutting and preening center stage, it was generations of discerning females that shaped their incredible appearance and outlandish courtship behavior that gave birds-of-paradise their name.

Media Credits

The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited.

Tyson Brown, National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
Production Managers
Gina Borgia, National Geographic Society
Jeanna Sullivan, National Geographic Society
Program Specialists
Sarah Appleton, National Geographic Society, National Geographic Society
Margot Willis, National Geographic Society
Clint Parks
Last Updated

October 19, 2023

For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. They will best know the preferred format. When you reach out to them, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource.


If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media.


Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service.


Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. You cannot download interactives.