Caravanserais were roadside inns along major trade routes like the ancient Silk Road, that doubled as hubs for the exchange of goods, ideas, and culture.


5 - 8


Anthropology, Sociology, Geography, Human Geography, Social Studies, Ancient Civilizations, World History


Market Vendor Caravanserai

A merchant weighs the product he is about to sell to determine the price. Merchants often gathered in large areas such as markets to sell their products.

Illustration by Christopher Klein
A merchant weighs the product he is about to sell to determine the price. Merchants often gathered in large areas such as markets to sell their products.

The journeys of merchants and their caravans along the Silk Road through the Middle East, Central Asia, and North Africa would have been much more difficult if not for the caravanserais (also spelled caravansary) that dotted those ancient routes. Variously described as “guest houses,” “roadside inns,” and “hostels,” caravanserais were buildings designed to provide overnight housing to travelers. Merchants and their caravans were the most frequent visitors.In furnishing, safe respite for guests from near and far, caravanserais also became centers for the exchange of goods and culture.

As traffic along the Silk Road increased, so did the construction of caravanserais. They were needed as safe havens—not just from extreme climates and weather, but also from bandits who targeted caravans loaded with silks, spices, and other expensive goods. In fact, caravanserais were built at regular intervals so that merchants would not have to spend the night exposed to the dangers of the road. They appeared roughly 32-40 kilometers (20–25 miles) apart—about a day’s journey—on the busiest Silk Road routes.

The design of these buildings also reflected their protective purpose. Often built just outside the nearest town or village, they were encircled by immense walls resembling those of a fort. Caravans entered through a high, massive gate that could be secured from within at night with heavy chains. A porter stood guard just past the gate, charged with safeguarding the persons, goods, and animals inside.

The interior of a caravanserai looked more like an inn than a fortress, however. A large ground-floor courtyard ringed with storerooms and stables for camels, donkeys, and horses would often have a corner for cook fires as well. Small, unfurnished rooms for lodgers were found on the second floor. Some larger caravanserais also featured a bathhouse and prayer room.

Most of the old caravanserais still in existence today are crumbling stone ruins, of interest only to historians and tour groups. In contrast, medieval caravanserais were lively seedbeds for globalization, resembling the modern city in the variety of people, languages, goods, and customs found within their walls. Travelers from East and West—speaking many different languages—traded stories, news, merchandise, and ideas while they mingled at these trade hubs. They sampled local cuisine and observed foreign etiquette. They learned more about Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism from missionaries and scholars passing through. When they traveled on, they took much that was new and different along with them. The economic and cultural exchanges caravanserais made possible had far-reaching effects still seen today in the variety of languages, faiths, and cultures co-existing in this region of the world.

Media Credits

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Tyson Brown, National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
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Gina Borgia, National Geographic Society
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Sarah Appleton, National Geographic Society, National Geographic Society
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André Gabrielli, National Geographic Society
Last Updated

October 19, 2023

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