The Conservation of Matter During Physical and Chemical Changes

The Conservation of Matter During Physical and Chemical Changes

Matter makes up all visible objects in the universe, and it can be neither created nor destroyed.


3 - 12


Chemistry, Conservation, Earth Science, Geology, Physics


Water in Three States

Water can exist in three different physical states—as a gas, liquid, and a solid—under natural conditions on Earth. Regardless of its physical state, they all have the same chemical composition. Water is 2 hydrogen atoms bonded to 1 oxygen atom.

Photograph by OJO Images Ltd.
Water can exist in three different physical states—as a gas, liquid, and a solid—under natural conditions on Earth. Regardless of its physical state, they all have the same chemical composition. Water is 2 hydrogen atoms bonded to 1 oxygen atom.
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The tiny particles called atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter. Atoms can be combined with other atoms to form molecules.

From port-a-potties to supernovas, matter makes up everything visible in the known universe. Because matter is never created or destroyed, it cycles through our world.

Atoms that were in a dinosaur millions of years ago may be inside you today. Same goes for atoms from a star billions of years before that.

Matter Takes Up Space

Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. It includes molecules, atoms, fundamental particles and any substance that these particles make up. Matter can change form through physical and chemical changes, but through any of these changes, matter is conserved. The same amount of matter exists before and after the change—none is created or destroyed. This concept is called the Law of Conservation of Mass.

In a physical change, a substance's physical properties may change, but its chemical makeup does not. Water, for example, is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Water is the only substance on Earth that exists naturally in three states: solid, liquid, and gas. To change between these states, water must undergo physical changes. When water freezes, it becomes hard and less dense, but it is still chemically the same. There are the same number of water molecules present before and after the change. Water's chemical properties remain constant.

Hydrogen and Oxygen Atoms Can Look Very Different

To form water, however, hydrogen and oxygen atoms must undergo chemical changes. For a chemical change to occur, bonds between atoms must break or form. This changes the chemical properties of the substances involved. Both hydrogen and oxygen are diatomic. In other words, they exist naturally as bonded pairs—H2 and O2, respectively. In the right conditions and with enough energy, these diatomic bonds will break. The atoms will join to form H2O (water). Chemists write out this chemical reaction as:

2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O

This equation says that it takes two molecules of hydrogen and one molecule of oxygen to form two molecules of water. Notice there are the same number of hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms on either side of the equation. In chemical changes, just as in physical changes, matter is conserved. The difference in this case is that the substances before and after the change have different physical and chemical properties. Hydrogen and oxygen are gases at standard temperature and pressure. Meanwhile, water is a colorless, odorless liquid.

Water Is an Example of How Matter Moves Through the World

Ecosystems have many chemical and physical changes happening all at once. Matter is conserved in each and every one—no exceptions. Consider a stream flowing through a canyon. How many chemical and physical changes are happening at any given moment?

First, let's consider the water. For many canyon streams, the water comes from higher elevations and originates as snow. Of course, that's not where the water began—it's been cycled all over the world since Earth first had water. In the example of the canyon stream, it began in the mountains as snow. The snow must undergo a physical change—melting—to join the stream. As the liquid water flows through the canyon, it may evaporate, another physical change, into water vapor. Water gives a very clear example of how matter cycles through our world, frequently changing form but never disappearing.

Plants Turn Sunlight into Fuel

Next, consider the plants and algae living in and along the stream. In a process called photosynthesis, these organisms convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy. This is stored in sugars. However, the light energy doesn't produce the atoms that make up those sugars. That would break the Law of Conservation of Mass. It simply provides energy for a chemical change to occur. The atoms come from carbon dioxide in the air and water in the soil. Light energy allows these bonds to break and reform to produce sugar and oxygen. This is shown in the chemical equation for photosynthesis:

6CO2 + 6H2O + light -> C6H12O6 (sugar) + 6O2

This equation says that six carbon dioxide molecules combine with six water molecules. Together, they form one sugar molecule and six molecules of oxygen. If you added up all the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms on either side of the equation, the sums would be equal. Matter is conserved in this chemical change.

Animals in and around the stream eat these plants. Their bodies use the stored chemical energy to power their cells and move around. They use the nutrients in their food to grow and repair their bodies—the atoms for new cells must come from somewhere. Any food that enters an animal's body must either leave its body or become part of it.

Matter Takes Shape in Many Different Forms

The bottom line is: Matter cycles through the universe in many different forms. In any physical or chemical change, matter doesn't appear or disappear. Atoms created in the stars (a very, very long time ago) make up every living and nonliving thing on Earth—even you. It's impossible to know how far and through what forms your atoms traveled to make you. And it's impossible to know where they will end up next.

Media Credits

The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited.

Tyson Brown, National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
Production Managers
Gina Borgia, National Geographic Society
Jeanna Sullivan, National Geographic Society
Program Specialists
Sarah Appleton, National Geographic Society, National Geographic Society
Margot Willis, National Geographic Society
Clint Parks
Roza Kavak
Last Updated

October 19, 2023

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