Living near water is a wonderful thing—except when there’s a flood


5 - 8


Earth Science, Geology, Engineering, Geography, Human Geography, Physical Geography

NGS Resource Carousel Loading Logo
Loading ...

Living near water is a wonderful thing—except when there’s a flood. So people build levees. A levee is a natural or artificial wall that blocks water from going where we don’t want it to go. Levees may be used to increase available land for habitation or divert a body of water so the fertile soil of a river or seabed may be used for agriculture. They prevent rivers from flooding cities in a storm surge. But if a levee breaks, the consequences can be disastrous.

Levees are usually made of earth. The natural movement of a body of water pushes sediment to the side, creating a natural levee. The banks of a river are often slightly elevated from the riverbed. The banks form levees made of sediment, silt, and other materials pushed aside by the flowing water. Levees are usually parallel to the way the river flows, so levees can help direct the flow of the river.

Levees can also be artificially created or reinforced. Artificial levees are usually built by piling soil, sand, or rocks on a cleared, level surface. In places where the flow of a river is strong, levees may also be made of blocks of wood, plastic, or metal. Where the area beside a river or other body of water is in particular danger, levees may even be reinforced by concrete.

People have been building and reinforcing levees since the beginning of civilization. As early as 2500 B.C.E., the Indus Valley Civilization, with urban centers in what is today Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, Pakistan, used levees to protect land near the Indus River. Farmers were able to grow crops like cotton and rice.

In addition to creating living space and cropland, levees can also provide a measure of protection from invaders. Levees can make a river like a moat, preventing people from easily invading territory on the other side. Destroying levees can also stop invading forces. In 1938, Chinese leaders intentionally broke levees on the Yellow River to prevent the Japanese military from advancing. More than 500,000 people, Japanese and Chinese, died in the resulting flood.

Artificial levees need to be protected. They have to stand up to erosion, or wearing away, by the nearby water. Sometimes, trees and plants like Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) are planted near levees to anchor the soil. Engineers need to maintain levees with structural work to reinforce the boundaries.

In emergencies, temporary levees can be made of sandbags. These soak up the water and usually prevent excess water from seeping past the sand.

Artificial levees prevent flooding. But they also create a new problem: levees squeeze the flow of the river. All the river’s power is flowing through a smaller space. Water levels are higher and water flows faster. This puts more pressure on levees downstream and makes the water more difficult to control. If levees break, it also makes containing the flood more difficult.

Since the 18th century, levees have protected Louisiana and other nearby states from flooding by the Mississippi River. When Hurricane Katrina struck the U.S. city of New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2005, the levees could not withstand the storm surge. The levees broke, and water flooded 80 percent of the city.

Levees on the Sea

Although most levees exist to control rivers, they can also exist on the coast. The country of the Netherlands has an elaborate system of dikes, levees, and dams to hold back the North Sea. Land for farms, industry, and residential use has been created from land that was once the ocean floor.

The Bay of Fundy, which borders the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada, has one of the highest tidal ranges in the world. The tidal range reaches more than 17 meters (55 feet) in some places. To make the most use of land that would otherwise be underwater during high tide, Canada has constructed levees along parts of the Bay of Fundy.

Fast Fact

Long Levees
The levee system along the Mississippi River has some of the longest individual levees in the world. One of these levees stretches south along the river from Pine Bluff, Arkansas, United States, for an entire 611 kilometers (380 miles).

Media Credits

The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited.

Hilary Costa
Erin Sprout
Santani Teng
Melissa McDaniel
Jeff Hunt
Diane Boudreau
Tara Ramroop
Kim Rutledge
Hilary Hall
Mary Crooks, National Geographic Society
Tim Gunther
Jeannie Evers, Emdash Editing, Emdash Editing
Kara West
Educator Reviewer
Nancy Wynne
National Geographic Society
Last Updated

October 19, 2023

For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. They will best know the preferred format. When you reach out to them, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource.


If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media.


Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service.


Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. You cannot download interactives.

Related Resources